Foxglove, Digitalis

Digitalis
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“Foxglove” redirects here. For other uses, see Foxglove (disambiguation).
Foxglove
Digitalis purpurea (Common Foxglove)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:     Plantae
(unranked):     Angiosperms
(unranked):     Eudicots
(unranked):     Asterids
Order:     Lamiales
Family:     Plantaginaceae[1]
Genus:     Digitalis
L.
Species

Over 20 species, including:
Digitalis canariensis
Digitalis cariensis
Digitalis ciliata
Digitalis davisiana
Digitalis dubia
Digitalis ferruginea
Digitalis grandiflora
Digitalis isabelliana
Digitalis laevigata
Digitalis lanata
Digitalis leucophaea
Digitalis lutea
Digitalis mariana
Digitalis micrantha
Digitalis obscura
Digitalis parviflora
Digitalis purpurea
Digitalis sceptrum
Digitalis thapsi
Digitalis trojana
Digitalis viridiflora

Digitalis (play /?d?d???te?l?s/[2] or /?d?d???tæl?s/[3]) is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials that are commonly called foxgloves. This genus was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae, but recent reviews of phylogenetic research have placed it in the much enlarged family Plantaginaceae.[1] This genus is native to western and south western Europe,[4] western and central Asia, and northwestern Africa. The scientific name means “finger-like” and refers to the ease with which a flower of Digitalis purpurea can be fitted over a human fingertip. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, are tubular, and vary in colour with species, from purple to pink, white, and yellow. The best-known species is the “Common Foxglove”, Digitalis purpurea. This is a biennial plant which is often grown as an ornamental plant due to its vivid flowers. These range in colour from various purple tints through various shades of light gray, and to purely white. The flowers can also possess various marks and spottings.

The first year of growth of the Common Foxglove produces only the stem with its long, basal leaves. During the second year of the plant’s life, a long leafy stem from 50 to 255 centimeters tall grows atop the roots of healthy plants.[5][6]

The larvae of the insect the “Foxglove pug” consume the flowers of the Common Foxglove for food. Other species of Lepidoptera eat the leaves of the Common Foxglove, including Lesser Yellow Underwing.

The term digitalis is also used for drug preparations that contain cardiac glycosides, particularly one called digoxin, that are extracted from various plants of this genus.

Habitat

Digitalis thrives in acidic soils, in partial sunlight to deep shade, in a range of habitats including open woods, woodland clearings, moorland, and heath margins, sea-cliffs, rocky mountain slopes and hedge banks.[4][8] It is commonly found on sites where the ground has been disturbed, such as recently cleared woodland, or where the vegetation has been burnt.[9]